Site Logo
ARS Home About Us Helptop nav spacerContact Us En Espanoltop nav spacer
   return home



Welcome to the
Phytoplasma Resource Center
hosted by the
Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory (MPPL)


Whole genome sequencing
Bai X, Zhang J, Ewingh A, Miller SA, Radek AJ, Schevchenko D, Tsukerman K, Walunas T, Lapidus A, Campbell JW & Hogenhout SA (2006) Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas to diverse environments of their insect and plant hosts. J Bacteriol 188: 3682-3696.

Oshima K, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Jung, H-Y, Wei W, Suzuki S, Arashida R, Nakata D, Miyata S, Ugaki M & Namba S (2004) Reductive evolution suggested from the complete genome sequence of a plant-pathogenic phytoplasma. Nat Genet 36: 27-29.

Genome decay / host adaptation
Davis RE, Jomantiene R & Zhao Y (2005) Lineage-specific decay of folate biosynthesis genes suggests on-going host adaptation in phytoplasmas. DNA and Cell Biol 24: 832-840.

Davis RE, Jomantiene R, Zhao Y & Dally EL (2003) Folate biosynthesis pseudogenes, psi-folP and psi-folK, and an O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase gene homolog in the phytoplasma genome. DNA and Cell Biol 22: 697-706.

Genome architecture
Jomantiene R & Davis RE (2006) Clusters of diverse genes existing as multiple, sequence-variable mosaics in the phytoplasma genome. FEMS Microbiol Lett 255: 59-65.

Physical mapping
Firrao G, Smart CD, Kirkpatrick BC (1996) Physical map of the Western X-disease phytoplasma chromosome. J Bacteriol 178:3985-3988.

Lauer U, Seemuller E (2000) Physical map of the chromosome of the apple proliferation phytoplasma. J Bacteriol 182 (5):1415-1418.

Marcone C, Seemuller E (2001) A chromosome map of the European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma. Microbiology 147 (Pt 5):1213-1221.

Padovan AC, Firrao G, Schneider B, Gibb KS (2000) Chromosome mapping of the sweet potato little leaf phytoplasma reveals genome heterogeneity within the phytoplasmas. Microbiology. 146 ( Pt 4):893-902.

Genome survey sequencing
Cimerman A, Arnaud G & Foissac X (2006) Stolbur phytoplasma genome survey achieved using a suppression subtractive hybridization approach with high specificity. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3274-83.

Liefting LW, Kirkpatrick BC (2003) Cosmid cloning and sample sequencing of the genome of the uncultivable mollicute, Western X-disease phytoplasma, using DNA purified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 221:203-211.

Genome size
Marcone C, Neimark H, Ragozzino A, Lauer U & Seemüller E (1999) Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups. Phytopathology 89: 805-810.

Phytoplasma plasmids / Extrachromosomal DNA
Kuboyama T, Huang CC, Lu X, Sawayanagi T, Kanazawa T, Kagami T, Matsuda I, Tsuchizaki T, Namba S (1998) A plasmid isolated from phytopathogenic onion yellows phytoplasma and its heterogeneity in the pathogenic phytoplasma mutant. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 11:1031-1037.

Liefting LW, Andersen MT, Lough TJ & Beever RE (2006) Comparative analysis of the plasmids from two isolates of "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense". Plasmid 56:138-44.

Liefting LW, Shaw ME & Kirkpatrick BC (2004) Sequence analysis of two plasmids from the phytoplasma beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent. Microbiology 150:1809-1817.

Nakashima K & Hayashi T (1997) Sequence analysis of extrachromosomal DNA of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Ann Phytopathol Soc Japan 63: 21-25.

Nishigawa H, Oshima K, Miyata S, Ugaki M, & Namba S (2003) Complete set of extrachromosomal DNAs from three pathogenic lines of onion yellows phytoplasma and use of PCR to differentiate each line. J Gen Plant Pathol 69: 194-198.

Nishigawa H, Oshima K, Kakizawa S, Jung HY, Kuboyama T, Miyata S, Ugaki M & Namba S (2002) A plasmid from a non-insect-transmissible line of a phytoplasma lacks two open reading frames that exist in the plasmid from the wild-type line. Gene 298:195-201.

Nishigawa H, Oshima K, Kakizawa S, Jung HY, Kuboyama T, Miyata S, Ugaki M & Namba S (2002) Evidence of intermolecular recombination between extrachromosomal DNAs in phytoplasma: a trigger for the biological diversity of phytoplasma? Microbiology 148 (Pt 5):1389-1396.

Oshima K, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Kuboyama T, Miyata S, Ugaki M & Namba S (2001) A plasmid of phytoplasma encodes a unique replication protein having both plasmid- and virus-like domains: clue to viral ancestry or result of virus/plasmid recombination? Virology 285:270-277.

Rekab D, Carraro L, Schneider B, Seemüller E, Chen J, Chang C-J, Locci R & Firrao G (1999) Geminivirus-related extrachromosomal DNAs of the X-clade phytoplasmas share high sequence similarity. Microbiology 145: 1453-1459.

Tran-Nguyen LT & Gibb KS (2006) Extrachromosomal DNA isolated from tomato big bud and Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense phytoplasma strains. Plasmid 56:153-166.

Dr. Robert E. Davis, Research Leader
United States Department of Agriculture Building 004, BARC-West
10300 Baltimore Ave. Beltsville, MD. 20705

Designed and created by Jonathan Shao, shaoj@ba.ars.usda.gov


 Phytoplasma Classification Database
ARS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Policies and Links 
FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Nondiscrimination Statement | Information Quality | FirstGov | White House